Tuesday, 26 June 2018 22:09

Turkish choice

In Turkey, June 24 took place the historical pre-term presidential and parliamentary elections

For the post of President of Turkey in 2018, 6 candidates applied:

  • Recep Tayyip Erdogan from the Justice and Development Party (current president);
  • Muharrem Inje - Republican People's Party;
  • Meral Akshener from the new party "Good Party";
  • Selahattin Demirtash from the People's Democratic Party;
  • Temel Karamollaoglu - The Virtue Party (Saadet);
  • Dogu Perincek - Patriotic Party (Vatan).


To win the election, the presidential candidate must win an absolute majority of votes - 50% plus one vote. In case of shortage, the second round is supposed. The official election results are announced by the Turkish High Electoral Commission within 24 hours after the voting is closed.

The early elections of 2018 were the second national elections in the country, the president had previously been elected by the parliament.

To the last, it remained an intrigue whether there will be a second round of presidential elections or not, since the current leader of the country Recep Tayyip Erdogan had a strong competitor from the opposition center-left Republican People's Party Muharrem Inje. He was the one who many predicted passage together with Erdogan in the second round, which would be in the case of on July 8th.

However, the President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan scored an absolute majority in the presidential election.

Turkish President

What became known on June 25 from the statement of the head of the CEC Sadi Guven.

Initially, elections were scheduled for 2019, but after the fall of the Turkish lira against the dollar earlier this year, the government announced early elections, giving candidates only a couple of months to prepare. Civil organizations and opposition parties conducted an unprecedented mobilization to observe the elections on Sunday. Eight international organizations also monitored the voting. According to Turkish media, in the Sunday elections Erdogan received about 53 % of the vote. His main rival, Muharrem Inje, took second place, receiving 31 %. The state media estimate the turnout at 87%.

The elections were held under the state of emergency, which provides law enforcement officers wide powers to arrest.

The state of emergency, introduced after the coup attempt in July 2016. Then, the Turkish authorities accused the spiritual leader Fethullah Gülen, who lives in the US, as well as the supporters of the Hezmet movement that he leads. Gülen rejects everything. According to the UN, as a result of the government's strategy of tightening nuts and fighting dissent, more than 160 thousand people in Turkey were imprisoned after the coup attempt.

Supporters of Erdogan, who has been in power since 2003, admire his support for conservative values, large-scale infrastructure projects and a decisive position in the security sphere. Critics accuse him of trying to impose an authoritarian regime in the country, the opponents of the current president promised in pre-election programs that they will not support constitutional changes.

The post of president in Turkey was once ceremonial, but in April 2017, 51% of Turkish voters supported the new constitution, which gave the president new powers.

They include:

  • The right to directly appoint top officials, including ministers, vice-presidents and other top officials of the state;
  • The right to influence the justice system;
  • The right to introduce a state of emergency.
  • The post of prime minister will soon be abolished.

Parliamentary elections in Turkey

Simultaneously with the presidential elections in Turkey, parliamentary elections were held.

Turkish Parlament

Several political parties took part in the elections:

  • Justice and Development Party (AKP),
  • Party of nationalist movement (MHP),
  • Republican People's Party (СНР),
  • "Good party",
  • Sunni "Party of Happiness" (or "Felicity"),
  • Democratic Party,
  • Pro-Kurdish Democratic People's Party (HDP).

The alliance, which includes Erdogan's Justice and Development Party, received 53.6% of the vote in the parliamentary elections, and the opposition alliance - 34%. Thus, Erdogan's party lost its independent majority and it will have 294 seats in the 600-seat Mejlis (parliament in Turkey). Most of it will be created thanks to the partner on the bloc - the Party of the Nationalist Movement. Until now, Erdogan's political force had 317 seats in the 550-seat Mejlis.

Monday, 21 May 2018 01:35

Digest of interesting events in April

Accuya flags
Moscow and Ankara concluded an intergovernmental agreement on the construction of the "Akkuyu" nuclear power plant with VVER-1200 reactors in Mersin province on the Mediterranean coast in May 2010.

At the beginning of April 2018 Atomic Energy Agency of Turkey issued a license for the construction of the first unit. The regulator acknowledged nuclear power plant project complies with all requirements adopted in Turkey.

The design solutions of the "Akkuyu" NPP Station meet all modern requirements of the world nuclear community, enshrined in IAEA safety standards, the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group and the requirements of the EUR Club.

Arrived on April 3 in Ankara, Russian President Vladimir Putin, together with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, took part in the ceremony of launching the construction of the first power unit of the "Akkuyu" nuclear power plant, which Rosatom is building in Turkey. Turkish president called the start of construction - "a historic moment". Erdogan stressed that with the output to full capacity, the nuclear power plant will meet 10% of Turkey's electricity needs, reducing dependence on gas and coal.

Accuya plan

The first nuclear power plant in Turkey will be launched in 2023, creating new jobs both in Russia and Turkey. Start of commercial operation of the power units №1-4 tentatively scheduled for April 2023, 2024, 2025 and 2026, respectively. Under the plan, "Akkuyu" should issue 35 billion kW / h of electricity per year at the stage of commissioning of all power units. The service life of the first power unit is calculated until 2083.

NPP "Akkuyu" Construction Project in Turkey is the world's first nuclear power plant project, implemented by BOO model (build-own-operate). It is 100% funded by the Russian Federation and, according to the signed intergovernmental agreement, at least 51% of shares should belong to companies from the Russian Federation, and 49% can be sold to outside investors.

In Saudi Arabia, where cinemas were banned in the early 1980s, the film was first shown on a wide screen

SA Cinema first movieFor more than 35 years, the inhabitants of the kingdom mostly went to watch films in neighboring Bahrain, but recently the General Commission on Audiovisual Media began issuing licenses to cinemas. The first shown film was the American animated film of 2017 "Emodzhi film".

It is noteworthy that the government lifted the ban on the work of cinemas even after the country's chief priest stated that "debauchery, which is shown in the films", distorts the morality of the country.

The Ministry of Culture ignored this statement and noted that it will begin to grant licenses for the screening of films immediately. But at the same time the films planned for the demonstration will be censored before they reach the big screens in order not to violate the country's moral values.

mohammed bin salman al saud

A statement by the Minister of Information and Culture of Saudi Arabia states that the lifting of the ban on cinemas is part of the program of social and economic reforms implemented by Prince Mohammed ibn Salman.

According to Prince Mohammed, cinemas will reduce the level of extremism: "If you want to fight terrorism, you need to give people a lot of love. Love comes from joy, and the film - it's a joy".

SA CinemaThe economic development program of Saudi Arabia until 2030 provides for a serious growth of the entertainment segment, which forces the kingdom to abandon the extremely conservative policy of separate existence of men and women. According to government estimates, by 2030 the country will open about 300 cinemas with more than 2 thousands Halls. This will create 30 thousands Jobs and will contribute to the GDP approximately $ 24 billion.

Among other social reforms announced in Saudi Arabia in recent years - the abolition of the ban on driving a car by women.

The historic meeting of South and North Korean leaders Moon Jae-in and Kim Jong-un took place

NK vs SK
Kim Jong-un's meeting with South Korean President Moon Jae-in took place in the demilitarized zone on the South Korean side of the border at the Panmunjom border crossing during the inter-Korean summit of 2018.

Over four thousand journalists gathered to cover the inter-Korean summit from all over the world. South Korea turned the largest exhibition complex in Seoul into a huge press center. The summit was broadcast live on giant screens.

Formally, North and South Korea are still at war, since after the military conflict in 1950-1953 the countries have not signed a peace agreement. In fact, the Korean War lasted from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953. Many historians consider it was a conflict between the United States and the United Nations on the southern side and the army of China and the USSR Air Force from the north. After the war, the peninsula was divided into zones of influence of the USSR and the USA.

Kim Jong-un became the first leader of the DPRK to visit South Korea. For all time there were three meetings between the leaders of the two Koreas. In 1953, after the failed North Korean attack on the South in Pyongyang, the leaders of the North and the South held negotiations. In 2000 and in 2007, also in the capital of the DPRK, the father of the current leader of North Korea Kim Jong Il accepted the South Korean presidents.

The place where the soldiers of the North and South stand face to face is the most protected part of the demilitarized zone. Here, representatives of the two Koreas cross the state border for bilateral negotiations. In response to the question of Moon Jae-in, when he could visit the DPRK, Kim Jong-un took the president by the hand and moved to the north side. Previously, within the demilitarized zone, Southerners could cross the North border only inside special blue barracks. Returning to the territory of South Korea, the Leaders walked along the red carpet accompanied by soldiers dressed in the military uniform of the times of the united Korea.

Korea lunch
The first round lasted three hours. The place of negotiations was the "House of Peace" in the South Korean control zone. Kim Jong-un made an entry in the book for guests:
"At the beginning of a new history of peace and prosperity".

At noon, the black limousine of the leader of North Korea wandered from the House of Peace, with people in plainclothes running synchronously alongside him - the North Korean leader preferred dining on his territory.

Korea pine of piece
After lunch, the leaders arrived at the place of the symbolic tree planting (Pine Tree of Peace and Prosperity) - on the border of the two Koreas.

This action is filled with symbolism. The age of the tree is 65 years: exactly the same as after the end of the Korean War. Two slides of the earth: one - from the North Korean mountain of Paektusan, the other - from the South Korean Hallasan. Another detail: the water in the watering can Kim Jong-un - from the Han River in the South, at the Moon Jae-in - from North Korea Taedong in Pyongyang.

As a result of the meeting, the leaders of the two states agreed to sign a peace treaty this year that will end the Korean War, which is still officially incomplete, and about the resumption of communications between the countries.

Korea S N

The parties undertake not to wage war against each other. They also agreed to work toward nuclear disarmament on the Korean peninsula and the phased reduction of armaments. The demilitarized zone on the border will now be called the "zone of peace". Also from May 1, countries stopped propaganda broadcasting on the border.

King of Swaziland Mswati III renamed his country to the Kingdom of eSvatini

EsvatiniThe new name of the state between South Africa and Mozambique is now eSvatini, which in Swahili means "Swazi's place". The population of the kingdom is about 1.1 million people.

King Mswati III announced the change of name at the sports stadium in Manzini during the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the independence of Swaziland from British rule. He stated that the country was returning to the name that It used before colonization by the British. Another occasion for celebrations was the anniversary of Mswati himself, who also celebrated his 50th birthday.

Swaziland gained independence from Britain in 1968. Before that, the country had been under the British protectorate for more than 60 years.

Svati suiteThe issue of renaming Swaziland was discussed for many years, and at the legislative level the issue was considered since 2015. Mswati III used this name, speaking to the UN General Assembly in 2017, as well as opening the session of the country's parliament in 2014.

Officially, the king of this African country is called "nguyenyama" ("lion"). Most of all, he is known for his polygamy and love for the traditional Swazi costume, in which the monarch constantly appears in public. Mswati III is the last absolute monarch in Africa. His power in the territory of Swaziland is unlimited. The king has 15 wives, his father for a lifetime had a total of 125

The king said that because of the name of the state, there is often confusion: "Every time we go abroad, people think that we are from Switzerland".

Human rights activists criticize the authorities of Swaziland for banning political parties and discrimination against women. In addition, the country has the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world.

Wednesday, 18 April 2018 13:58

March staffing

March turned out to be quite busy in terms of personnel changes in the world. Leaders and entire parliaments change. Let's follow consistently the most significant changes:

1459167371Armen Sargsyan, former Prime Minister of Armenia, candidate from the ruling Republican Party, was elected to the country's presidency by the parliament. In April, will come into force amendments to the Constitution of Armenia adopted in the autumn of 2016. The new version of the Basic Law ensures that the president's powers are reduced to representative ones. The main power in the country will be concentrated in the hands of the parliament and the government.

In Italy held early parliamentary elections, which were held under a new electoral law. 630 deputies of the Chamber of Deputies and 315 elected members of the Senate were elected. This is the 18th general election to the parliament of the Italian Republic.

In the Czech Republic, in the Prague Castle, the inauguration ceremony of Milos Zeman was held. He was first elected head of the Czech Republic in 2013 and after re-election in January entered his second five-year term.

catherine de bolleFor the first time the head of the police service of the European Union is a woman. It coincided that the decision on appointment was made on the International Women's Day.

Before that, Catherine De Boll became the first woman in the history of Belgium to lead the country's police. She has held this post since 2012.

Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Moravetsky dismissed 17 vice-ministers. This step, he said, should improve the work of the government and make it "less political". Moravetsky made his statement shortly after the opposition raised the question of the level of expenditure in the Polish Defense Ministry and premiums for members of the previous government team. Opposition MPs say that dismissals do not change the situation too much, since most former vice-ministers will continue to carry out their tasks, but at a lower level.

US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson was dismissed from his post, in his place was appointed CIA Director Mike Pompeo. A new head of the CIA became Gina Hespel, the first woman to head the intelligence community.

Merkel 4.0
Most of the deputies of the German Bundestag voted for the re-election of Angela Merkel to the post of Chancellor of Germany. Under the Constitution of Germany, one and the same person can be on the post of the Federal Chancellor an unlimited number of terms. Helmut Kohl remained in his post for 16 years and lost his post as chancellor, losing the elections in 1998.

Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico resigned on the background of the political crisis in the country associated with the murder of journalist Jan Kutsiaka and his bride. The successor to Robert Fico at the post of premier was Deputy Prime Minister Peter Pellegrini.

In Russia, the presidential elections took place, the victory of which was won by Vladimir Putin.

According to the results of the "two sessions" in Beijing, the new composition of the Government of the People's Republic of China was approved. The chairman of the country was elected, the prime minister and vice premiers of the State Council of the PRC were appointed. Seven permanent members of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee have taken office, they will make efforts to carry out further reforms in the country. Prime Minister Li Keqiang remained in office until 2023.

"Two sessions" is an instrument that the Chinese authorities use to demonstrate the democratic character of the processes and to consolidate the decisions of the Communist Party with a broad people's mandate.

In the course of the current reform, eight bodies at the ministerial level were liquidated, as well as seven divisions at the level of departments of ministries. The abolition of departments is aimed at more effective management of relevant cases.

The President of Peru, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, resigned. He presented to Congress a statement about his resignation because of a scandal with the bribery of the congressional votes. The new president became the first vice-president Martin Vizcarra.

Friday, March 30th it became known that in the near future the reform of state institutions will start in France, part of which, where it is a question of reducing the number of deputies and senators by 30%, has already been agreed. So, the number of deputies from 577 will be reduced to 404, and senators - from 348 to 244.

Thursday, 15 March 2018 17:14

Digest of interesting events of February

1 Jordan

In response to the US call to stop the trade and diplomatic relations with North Korea, Jordan, in accordance with the policies of its allies, in early February, has decided to break its diplomatic relations with the North Korea.

Jordan's King Abdullah II signed a decree to end the accreditation of Jordan's ambassador to North Korea and the North Korea ambassador to Jordan.

Previously, relations with North Korea had already been broken by Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, wich are also key regional US allies.

February 6, cosmo-a historic event

Company SpaceX, after 7 years of training, launched a heavy carrier rocket Falcon Heavy, which is theoretically capable of bringing to low Earth orbit up to 63 tons of cargo. To geostationary orbit it will be able to deliver up to 26 tons of cargo. To the main point of its destination, the red planet, Falcon Heavy is capable of sending more than 16 tons of cargo. The cost of one launch is estimated at 80-120 million dollars, depending on the loading of the rocket.

2 SpaceXSince it was a test launch, the rocket did not carry a payload with it.. The red Tesla Roadster belonging to Ilona Mask was sent to space. In the car behind the wheel a mannequin in a spacesuit is sitting. It listens to David Bowie's "Space Oddity" composition and carries a disk with the works of science fiction writer Isaac Azimov. Also Mask noted that in the car there is a book by Douglas Adams "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy", a towel and a tablet with the inscription "Do not Panic".

Thus, for the first time in the history of mankind, the Car was sent into outer space.

February 9-25, 2018 in South Korean Pyeongchang XXIII Winter Olympics were held

The Olympic torch relay traditionally began in Greece on October 24. Eight days the torch carried by Hellas, then at the Athens stadium, "Panathinaikos" Olympic flame was ceremoniously handed over to representatives of the Organizing Committee of the Games in PyeongChang.

OLYMP2018 0

On November 1, 2017, the Olympic flame was delivered to South Korea 100 days before the opening of the games. The route of the relay, in which the 7500 torch bearers participated, was symbolic 2018 kilometers. The relay ended on February 9, 2018 at the temporary Olympic stadium in Pyeongchang, which is located in the mountains of Taebaek, 130 kilometers east of Seoul. There was also a solemn opening ceremony of the ХХІІІ Winter Olympic Games. Art director of spectacular show with the national colors has been Yong Yun Woon, director - Song Seung Hwan.

OLYMP2018 1

Talismans of the Games were the Sukhoran tiger (Olympiada) and the Pandabi bear (Paralympicad).

Six countries participated for the first time in the Winter Games: Kosovo, Malaysia, Nigeria, Singapore, Ecuador and Eritrea.

For 102 sets of medals competed more than 2,5 thousand athletes from 92 countries.

Winter Olympic Games this year were visited by 1.3 million people, said the head of the organization of the competition Li Hee Bohm.

The peak was recorded on February 17 - when 146,506 people attended the games.

Medal offset of the Olympics-2018 was won by Norway. Her account included 39 medals - 14 gold, 14 silver and 11 bronze medals. This is the record for the number of medals won at one Games.

Tomas BuhThe head of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Thomas Bach said that all the participants of the Games in 2018 highly appreciated the level of the competition.

"The conditions that were given to the athletes - the Olympic Village and facilities - were highly appreciated, not a single athlete expressed dissatisfaction. Athletes responded to this with great results, their own personal stories. We saw the expected results, but were also repeatedly surprised. This is the essence of the Olympic Games, the competitions were marvelous", — told Bach.

OLYMP2018 2The Organizing Committee of the Olympics finished Games-2018 with a profit. According to the published report of the Organizing Committee of the Olympics in South Korea, the Winter Olympics-2018 cost four times cheaper than the Games in Sochi in 2014.

On February 25, the sports world said goodbye to the 2018 Olympic Games. The Koreans presented a colorful performance with actors in national costumes and an abundance of fireworks, after which the Olympic fire was extinguished - from this moment the Olympics are considered closed.

The next winter Olympics will be held in Beijing - February 4-20, 2022. The capital of China will be the first city to hold both the Winter and Summer Olympics.

facebook 3d posts gif

Users of the social network Facebook will be able to publish 3D-objects in their newsline, thanks to the fact that Facebook now supports the format glTF 2.0

Users can turn the image by holding the left mouse button or finger. 3D-posts support the display of textures, lighting settings and object rendering.

3D-editor Modo has already added the ability to make ready-to-publish on Facebook models. Now users can share their "3D memories" made by the Xperia XZ1 phone through Sony's "3D Creator" application. Also on Facebook, you can download images from the Oculus Medium platform, thanks to which users can create their digital sculptures using special controllers and a helmet for virtual reality. And soon, users will be able to share images from the site of three-dimensional images Poly of Google.

4 Greece MakedoniaOn Tuesday, February 27, the Prime Minister of Macedonia Zoran Zaev said that four variants of the name of the country were chosen to settle a long-standing dispute with Greece. He expressed his conviction that Greece would be satisfied with any of the options offered.

Greeks against the recognition of the name "Macedonia" in the dispute between the countries. This dispute has lasted since 1991 - since the Macedonians left Yugoslavia. Greece seeks to change the name of the republic so that it is not confused with the bordering Greek region of Macedonia, and blocks the country's accession to the EU and NATO.

The final decision on the dispute with Greece and the new name of Macedonia will be taken at a nationwide referendum. The options for voting are: the Republic of Northern Macedonia, the Republic of Upper Macedonia, the Republic of Vardar Macedonia and the Republic of Macedonia (Skopje).

In Greece, the neighboring country is called exclusively Skopje (by the name of the Macedonian capital) or the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Thursday, 15 February 2018 12:18

Digest of interesting events of January

bolgarija predsedatelBulgaria began in January its six-month chairmanship in the Council of the European Union, which will last until June 30

The ceremony dedicated to this event was held at the Ivan Vazov People's Theater in Sofia.

Bulgaria as chairman of the EU Council must succeed in advancing the European future of the Balkans.

Over the next six months, Sofia will host more than 300 official events, including more than 30 with the participation of political leaders of European countries, and more than 25,000 official guests will visit the country.

Priority for the Bulgarian Chairmanship will be the issues of regional development of the EU member states, the integration of the Western Balkans into the European community, the formation of a common European defense, and a common digital market.

NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization adopted its official anthem, which has no words

The hymn is written for 20 musical instruments.

NATO had a hymn before. Since 1989, the composition connected with the block was sounded by the conductor of the Luxembourg military orchestra, captain Andre Reichling. But it was not officially approved.

Since January 13, 2018 in the UK there are new banking rules, called Open Banking. They force large banks to implement the API-interfaces, which standardizes secure access to customer data with their consent.

Open bankingNine of the largest banks in the UK, serving the majority of the population can no longer block the financial transactions of third-party companies. In fact, this means allowing payments through Facebook Messenger, Google Wallet, and their analogues.

The new rules give full freedom for the development of payment Facebook and the Google products, which is not the first year, want to get into banking without actually becoming banks.

Previously, they needed to negotiate directly with each of the banks in order to access the data of the user account. This made it difficult for "quick payments" through applications that are widely used in the US and China.

World Economic Forum 2018


WEF has long gone beyond purely economic themes.

Women's rights
In 2018 one of the main topics of the forum were - the protection of women's rights. For the first time in the history of the forum, all co-chairmen were women.

Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau urged business leaders to hire and promote women on the career ladder, pay equal salaries, improve parental leave. Bollywood actor and director Shahruh Khan spoke about the problems of women in India.

Rights of migrants
Angela Merkel called for cooperation, not isolation, in dealing with migration problems.

Worldwide, approximately 65 million people were displaced, 22 of whom were refugees and only 1% of displaced persons in the world were resettled in developed countries. The main burden is taken by developing countries. For example, a quarter of Lebanon's population is refugees, mainly from Syria.

In 2018, new humanitarian crises may appear, which means that there can be even more refugees.

President of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Peter Maurer designated such fragile regions in this issue: the Southern Philippines, Myanmar, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a significant part of Africa.

President of the United States Donald Trump called environmental regulation tax, which outraged many. From his words, the refusal of the environmental rules introduced earlier, strengthened the business.

India is going for a serious move to "green" forms of energy. By 2022, India plans to produce 175 gigawatts from alternative sources. Over the past three years, India has already achieved a production volume of 60 gigawatts.

The crisis of globalization
Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi called the negative attitude to globalization one of the most significant problems of civilization. He believes that the countries are isolate from each other. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and French President Emanuel Macron noted the same trend.

In the sphere of trade, more and more protectionism, which alleviates the efforts of the WTO and the successes of globalization. Trade agreements have reached an impasse, many countries have faced a reduction in cross-border investment, the global supply chain has been interrupted. As a result, barriers appeared that adversely affect people in developing countries.

Crypto currency
Nobel Laureate 2013 in the field of economics Robert Schiller admitted that he was impressed by the technology on which the crypto currency bitcoin was built. He described Bitcoin as an "interesting experiment," but not the future of the global financial system. The economist drew attention to the use of a special unit in Chile Unidad de Fomento exchange, which varies depending on the level of inflation and is used to index payments since 1967.

The French leader Emmanuel Macron proposed to expand the IMF's powers to scrutinize cryptocurrency. Business is more loyal to crypto-currencies than politicians and economists. General partner and co-founder of Index Ventures SA Neil Rimer called crypto currency one of the most audacious, generous and profound inventions he observed in his career.

Poland stop tradeIn Poland, a ban on trading on Sunday

President of Poland Andrzej Duda signed at the end of January, the law on the prohibition of trade on Sundays. The upper house of parliament - the Senate - passed the law on January 11, and the lower chamber - the Sejm - adopted it in November last year.

The adopted law aims to allow trade workers spend Sunday with their families.

According to the law, from March 1, 2018, in each month, stores will only work on two Sundays - the first and last week of the month, in 2019 - three, by 2020 all trade on Sundays in Poland will be banned. In addition, the restriction of trade on the eve of Christmas and on Saturday before Easter until 14:00.

Exceptions may be made for online shops, pharmacies, shops, gas stations and retail outlets at the bakeries, where products are sold on the schedule, as well as a family business. Also, work on Sundays can flower and pastry shops.

The law also provides for a penalty for violation of the ban, which will be from 1,000 to 100,000 PLN, and in case of permanent violations of the ban - imprisonment!

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